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長劍 (歐洲) (11879 views - History & Epochal Times)

长剑(longsword,也有long sword或者long-sword)也可称为一手半剑(hand and a half sword),是一種歐洲劍具,典型特征是有十字形护手,剑柄够长,可以双手持也可单手持的双刃直剑,一般长度为90至110厘米(35至43英寸)。在欧洲出现时间为13-17世纪,最盛行年代为中世纪晚期和文艺复兴时期(约1350至1550年)。
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長劍 (歐洲)

長劍 (歐洲)

服役期间 約公元1350年-1550年
重量 平均1.1~1.8公斤(2.4~4.0英磅)


宽度 4.14~3.1厘米(1.63~1.22英寸),至劍刃

长剑(longsword,也有long sword或者long-sword)也可称为一手半剑(hand and a half sword),是一種歐洲劍具,典型特征是有十字形护手,剑柄够长,可以双手持也可单手持的双刃直剑,一般长度为90至110厘米(35至43英寸)[1]。在欧洲出现时间为13-17世纪,最盛行年代为中世纪晚期文艺复兴时期(约1350至1550年)。


它和变种剑(Bastard sword)的关系扑朔迷离。Joseph Swetnam说变种剑的长度介于短剑和长剑之间,[2]Randall Cotgrave的定义也差不多,某本字典显示了épée bâtarde的定义是“一把短的或至少是不够长的剑”。[3]法语的épée bâtarde和英语的bastard sword起源于15-16世纪,一开始是指所有“非正规的,起源不明的剑”,但有证据表明到了16世纪中期却开始指所有特别长的剑。[4] 亨利八世组织的“防御大师”比赛于1540年举办时,它把“双手剑”和“杂种剑”分成两种武器。[5]尽管还有一些证据可表明杂种剑用来表示比较短的剑,19世纪的文物藏品表明了“杂种剑”毫无岐义地指的是很大的剑。[6]

近代早期德语里长剑langes schwert和短剑kurzes schwert这两个词,据15世纪的手册表明并不是代表武器,而是代表双手用剑,还是一手持剑柄一手持剑身(类似于“牙突”)的技巧。直到16世纪晚期langes schwert才是指代的一种剑。当代的长剑("long-sword")一词是在21世纪随着古德国流击剑术复兴才出现的,是翻译自德语langes schwert[7][8][9]

"一手半剑"一词出现得晚得多,要到19世纪晚期才出现。[10]指的是既能单手用也能双手用的剑。在20世纪前半,"杂种剑"经常指的是这种剑,而"长剑"(long sword或long-sword)即使使用过,也都指的是文艺复兴到近世时使用的刺剑[11]


  1. ^ Loades, Mike. Swords and Swordsmen. Great Britain: Pen & Sword Books. 2010. ISBN 978-1-84884-133-8. 
  2. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为historical-academyii的参考文献提供内容
  3. ^ Cotgrave's 1611 French/English Dictionary
  4. ^ (法文) Rabelais, François. Le Duchat, Jacob, 编. Oeuvres. 1741: 129 (footnote 5). Qui n'étoit ni Françoise , ni Espagnole, ni proprement Lansquenette, mais plus grande que pas une de ces fortes épées.([A sword] which was neither French, nor Spanish, nor properly Landsknecht [German], but larger than any of these great swords. 
  5. ^ Strutt, Joseph. The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England from the Earliest Period: Including the Rural and Domestic Recreations, May Games, Mummeries, Pageants, Processions and Pompous Spectacles. Methuen & Company. 1801: 211. 
  6. ^ Oakeshott, Ewart. European Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution. Boydell & Brewer, Incorporated. 1980: 129–135. ISBN 9780851157894. 
  7. ^ A nonce attestation of "long-sword" in the sense of "heavy two-handed sword" is found in Kezer, Claude D. Principles of Stage Combat. I. E. Clark Publications. 1983. ISBN 9780886801564. 
  8. ^ Thimm, Carl A. A Complete Bibliography of Fencing and Duelling. Pelican Publishing. 31 May 1999. ISBN 9781455602773.  uses "long sword(Schwerdt)on p. 220 as direct translation from a German text of 1516, and "long sword or long rapier" in reference to George Silver (1599) on p. 269.
  9. ^ Systematic use of the term only from 2001 beginning with Tobler, Christian Henry; Ringeck, Sigmund; Liechtenauer, Johann. Secrets of German Medieval Swordsmanship. Chivalry Bookshelf. 2001. ISBN 9781891448072. 
  10. ^ As attested in Exhibition of the Royal House of Tudor. London: New Gallery. 1890. 
  11. ^ See, for example, A General Guide to the Wallace Collection. H.M. Stationery Office. 1933: 149. 

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