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## 研究历史

### 电磁理论

1845年，迈克尔·法拉第发现当偏振光穿过施加了磁场的透明介质时，会发生偏振旋转。这后来被称为法拉第效应，它首次发现了光和电磁的关系。在1846年，他推测光可能是沿磁场线衍生的某种形式的扰动。次年，法拉第提出光是一种高频电磁振动，不需要介质也能衍生。

## 特性

### 反射

1. 反射線、入射線與法線在同一平面上。
2. 反射線與入射線在法線的兩側。
3. 反射角等於入射角：
${\displaystyle \angle \theta _{i}=\angle \theta _{r}}$

### 折射

${\displaystyle n_{1}\sin \angle \theta _{1}=n_{2}\sin \angle \theta _{2}}$

${\displaystyle v_{2}=v_{1}{\tfrac {\sin \angle \theta _{2}}{\sin \angle \theta _{1}}}}$

${\displaystyle \angle \theta _{2}=90^{\circ }}$ 時，折射光沿着介面運行，這時 ${\displaystyle \angle \theta _{1}}$ 稱為臨界角 ${\displaystyle (\angle \theta _{c})}$；當 ${\displaystyle \angle \theta _{1}>\angle \theta _{c}}$ 時，入射光則完全反射回原介質，稱為全內反射。

## 參考文獻

1. ^ International Commission on Illumination (1987). International Lighting Vocabulary. Number 17.4. CIE, 4th edition. ISBN 978-3-900734-07-7.
By the International Lighting Vocabulary, the definition of light is: “Any radiation capable of causing a visual sensation directly.”
2. ^ Pal, G. K.; Pal, Pravati. chapter 52. Textbook of Practical Physiology 1st. Chennai: Orient Blackswan. 2001: 387 [11 October 2013]. ISBN 978-81-250-2021-9. The human eye has the ability to respond to all the wavelengths of light from 400-700 nm. This is called the visible part of the spectrum.
3. ^ Buser, Pierre A.; Imbert, Michel. Vision. MIT Press. 1992: 50 [11 October 2013]. ISBN 978-0-262-02336-8. Light is a special class of radiant energy embracing wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm (or mμ), or 4000 to 7000 Å.
4. ^ Laufer, Gabriel. Introduction to Optics and Lasers in Engineering. Cambridge University Press. 13 July 1996: 11 [20 October 2013]. ISBN 978-0-521-45233-5.
5. ^ Bradt, Hale. Astronomy Methods: A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations. Cambridge University Press. 2004: 26 [20 October 2013]. ISBN 978-0-521-53551-9.
6. ^ Ohannesian, Lena; Streeter, Anthony. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. CRC Press. 9 November 2001: 187 [20 October 2013]. ISBN 978-0-8247-4194-5.
7. ^ Ahluwalia, V. K.; Goyal, Madhuri. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Narosa. 1 January 2000: 110 [20 October 2013]. ISBN 978-81-7319-159-6.
8. ^ 各個波段的電磁波特徵與用途
9. ^ 近紅外光譜儀
10. ^ X光對人體的影響
11. ^ Whittaker, E. T., A history of the theories of aether and electricity. Vol 1, Nelson, London, 1951
12. ^ Hecht, Eugene, Optics 4th, United States of America: Addison Wesley: pp. 106–111, 141, 2002, ISBN 0-8053-8566-5 （English）
13. ^ 高中物理：机械波与电磁波

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "光", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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